Openness (개방성) – offers services according to standard rules that describe the syntax and semantics of those services. Such rules are formalized in protocols. 서로 상이한 요소 간에 interoperability (호환성), portability (이식성) 및 scalability (확장성)이 가능하도록 함
Interoperability (호환성) – characterizes to the extent by which two implementations of systems or components from different manufacturers can co-exist and work together by merely relying on each other’s services as specified by a common standard.
Portability (이식성) – characterizes to what extent an application developed for a distributed system A can be executed without modification on a different distributed system B that implements the same interfaces as A.
Scalability (확장성) – easy to add new components or replace existing ones without affecting those components that stay in place.