OOP Concepts

Object − objects have states and behaviors.
Class – defines the grouping of data and code, the “type” of an object
Instance – a specific allocation of a class
Message – sent to objects to make them act
Method – a “function” that an object knows how to perform
Local Variables − variables defined inside methods, constructors or blocks
Instance Variables – variables within a class but outside any method (a specific piece of data belonging to an object)
Class Variables − variables declared within a class, outside any method, with the static keyword
Abstraction – show only “relevant” data and “hide” unnecessary details of object from the user
Encapsulation – keep implementation private and seperate from interface
Polymorphism – process objects differently based on their data type, using same interface
Inheritance – hierarchical organization, share code, customize or extend behaviors